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Advanced Energy Storage Technologies and Their Applications (AESA)

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ISBN: 9783038425441 9783038425458 Year: Pages: 430 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-545-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-26 15:40:34
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The depletion of fossil fuels, the increase of energy demands, and the concerns over climate change are the major driving forces for the development of renewable energy, such as solar energy and wind power. However, the intermittency of renewable energy has hindered the deployment of large-scale intermittent renewable energy, which, therefore, has necessitated the development of advanced large-scale energy storage technologies. The use of large-scale energy storage can effectively improve the efficiency of energy resource utilization, and increase the use of variable renewable resources, the energy access, and the end-use sector electrification (e.g., electrification of transport sector). This Special Issue will provide a platform for presenting the latest research results on the technology development of large-scale energy storage. We welcome research papers about theoretical, methodological and empirical studies, as well as review papers, that provide critical overview on the state of the art of technologies. This special issue is open to all types of energy, such as thermal energy, mechanical energy, electrical energy and chemical energy, using different types of systems, such as phase change materials, batteries, supercapacitors, fuel cells, compressed air, etc., which are applicable to various types of applications, such as heat and power generation, electrical/hybrid transportation, etc.

Advanced Glasses, Composites and Ceramics for High Growth Industries

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ISBN: 9783038979609 / 9783038979616 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-961-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Advanced Glasses, Composites and Ceramics for High-Growth Industries (CoACH) was a European Training Network (ETN) project (http://www.coach-etn.eu/) funded by the Horizon 2020 program. CoACH involved multiple actors in the innovation ecosystem for advanced materials, composed of five universities and ten enterprises in seven different European countries. The project studied the next generation of materials that could bring innovation in the healthcare, construction, and energy sectors, among others, from new bioactive glasses for bone implants to eco-friendly cements and new environmentally friendly thermoelectrics for energy conversion. The novel materials developed in the CoACH project pave the way for innovative products, improved cost competitiveness, and positive environmental impact. The present Special Issue contains 14 papers resulting from the CoACH project, showcasing the breadth of materials and processes developed during the project.

Advancements in Algal Biofuels Research - Recent Evaluation of Algal Biomass Production and Conversion Methods of into Fuels and High Value Co-products

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451982 Year: Pages: 81 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-198-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biotechnology --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Algae biomass has enormous potential to produce fuels and value-added products. Algae-derived biofuels and bioproducts offer great promise in contributing to U.S. energy security and in mitigating the environmental concerns associated with conventional fuels. Algae’s ability to grow in low quality water/wastewater and to accumulate lipids has encouraged scientists to investigate algae as a medium for wastewater treatment and a potential source of fuel and bioproducts. There are growing demands for biomass-based transportation fuels, including biodiesel, bio-oil, biomethane, biohydrogen, and other high-value products (nutraceuticals, proteins, omega-3 etc.). Algae can help address these needs. The topic of algae energy includes the production and characterization of algae cultures, conversion into fuel feedstocks and high value products, and optimization of product isolation and use. In view of the increasing efforts in algae biomass production and conversion into energy and high-value products, the current research topic covers important aspects of algal strain selection, culture systems, inorganic carbon utilization, lipid metabolism and quality, biomass harvesting, extraction of lipids and proteins, and thermochemical conversion of algal feedstocks into biocrude.

Advancements in Biomass Recalcitrance: The Use of Lignin for the Production of Fuels and Chemicals

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457069 Year: Pages: 103 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-706-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Lignocellulosic biomass has great potentials as an alternative feedstock for fuels and chemicals. For effective utilization of biomass, biomass recalcitrance, which is inherent resistance of plant cell walls to biological deconstruction, needs to be reduced. Among many factors in biomass, lignin is significantly related to biomass recalcitrance. Lignin, a complex aromatic polymer, is the largest non-carbohydrate component (15-40% dry weight) in most terrestrial plants. In nature, it provides a structural integrity, facilitates water and nutrient transport, and protects plants from microbial attack. From a different angle, lignin significantly contributes to biomass recalcitrance, so it is necessary to reduce and/or modify the lignin for effective conversion of biomass. Genetic modifications of the lignin biosynthetic pathway and lignin-targeting pretreatments have been developed to minimize the lignin-induced biomass recalcitrance. High carbon content of lignin also renders it an attractive feedstock for many applications. About 100,000 to 200,000 tons of lignin can be generated per year as a byproduct from cellulosic ethanol production, so valorization of these lignins could be one of keys for achieving economic biorefinery. However, investigations of lignin conversion have not been accomplished as the utilization of carbohydrates in biomass. Depolymerization of lignin is still challenging because of its broad distribution of bond strengths, recondensation of low-molecular species, and poor product selectivity. Diverse biological and thermochemical depolymerization methods have been investigated to overcome these barriers. In this Research Topic, recent advancements in biomass recalcitrance by effective utilization of lignin are introduced.

Advances in Integrated Energy Systems Design, Control and Optimization

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ISBN: 9783038424901 9783038424918 Year: Pages: X, 176 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-491-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2017-09-18 08:26:19
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In the face of climate change and resource scarcity, energy supply systems are on the verge of a major transformation, which mainly includes the introduction of new components and their integration into the existing infrastructures, new network configurations and reliable topologies, optimal design and novel operation schemes, and new incentives and business models. This revolution is affecting the current paradigm and demanding that energy systems be integrated into multi-carrier energy hubs. It is highly increasing the interactions between today’s energy systems at various scales and future intelligent energy systems, which are able to incorporate an increasing amount renewable energy sources. This transformation is also accommodating active participation of end-users as responsive prosumers at different scales which in turn helps to reduce energy costs and to mitigate carbon footprints. This book covers the mentioned promising and dynamic areas of research and development, and reports on contributions in design, control and optimization of integrated energy systems. The contents of the book which are gathered based on the accepted articles in the special issue on Advances in Integrated Energy systems Design, Control and Optimization also covers a variety of topics, ranging from operation and control of small-scale electrical networks to the complex energy systems design and planning.

Advances in Microalgae Biology and Sustainable Applications

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450145 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-014-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany --- General and Civil Engineering --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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It has become more evident that many microalgae respond very differently than land plants to diverse stimuli. Therefore, we cannot reduce microalgae biology to what we have learned from land plants biology. However, we are still at the beginning of a comprehensive understanding of microalgae biology. Microalgae have been posited several times as prime candidates for the development of sustainable energy platforms, making thus the in-depth understanding of their biological features an important objective. Thus, the knowledge related to the basics of microalgae biology must be acquired and shared rapidly, fostering the development of potential applications. Microalgae biology has been studied for more than forty years now and more intensely since the 1970’s, when genetics and molecular biology approaches were integrated into the research programs. Recently, studies on the molecular physiology of microalgae have provided evidences on the particularities of these organisms, mainly in model species, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Of note, cellular responses in microalgae produce very interesting phenotypes, such as high lipid content in nitrogen deprived cells, increased protein content in cells under high CO2 concentrations, the modification of flagella structure and motility in basal body mutant strains, the different ancient proteins that microalgae uses to dissipate the harmful excess of light energy, the hydrogen production in cells under sulfur deprivation, to mention just a few. Moreover, several research groups are using high-throughput and data-driven technologies, including “omics” approaches to investigate microalgae cellular responses at a system-wide level, revealing new features of microalgae biology, highlighting differences between microalgae and land plants. It has been amazing to observe the efforts towards the development and optimization of new technologies required for the proper study of microalgae, including methods that opened new paths to the investigation of important processes such as regulatory mechanisms, signaling crosstalk, chemotactic mechanisms, light responses, chloroplast controlled mechanisms, among others. This is an exciting moment in microalgae research when novel data are been produced and applied by research groups from different areas, such as bioprocesses and biotechnology. Moreover, there has been an increased amount of research groups focused in the study of microalgae as a sustainable source for bioremediation, synthesis of bioproducts and development of bioenergy. Innovative strategies are combining the knowledge of basic sciences on microalgae into their applied processes, resulting in the progression of many applications that hopefully, will achieve the necessary degree of optimization for economically feasible large-scale applications. Advances on the areas of basic microalgae biology and novelties on the essential cellular processes were revealed. Progress in the applied science showed the use of the basic science knowledge into fostering translational research, proposing novel strategies for a sustainable world scenario. In this present e-book, articles presented by research groups from different scientific areas showed, successfully, the increased development of the microalgae research. Herewith, you will find articles ranging from bioprospecting regional microalgae species, through advances in microalgae molecular physiology to the development of techniques for characterization of biomass and the use of biomass into agriculture and bioenergy production. This e-book is an excellent source of knowledge for those working with microalgae basic and applied sciences, and a great opportunity for researchers from both areas to have an overview of the amazing possibilities we have for building an environmentally sustainable future once the knowledge is translated into novel applications.

Advances in Optofluidics

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ISBN: 9783038970958 9783038970965 Year: Pages: VIII, 140 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Optics and Lights
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-15 11:37:09
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Optofluidics a niche research field that integrates optics with microfluidics. It started with elegant demonstrations of the passive interaction of light and liquid media such as liquid waveguides and liquid tunable lenses. Recently, the optofluidics continues the advance in liquid-based optical devices/systems. In addition, it has expanded rapidly into many other fields that involve lightwave (or photon) and liquid media. This Special Issue invites review articles (only review articles) that update the latest progress of the optofluidics in various aspects, such as new functional devices, new integrated systems, new fabrication techniques, new applications, etc. It covers, but is not limited to, topics such as micro-optics in liquid media, optofluidic sensors, integrated micro-optical systems, displays, optofluidics-on-fibers, optofluidic manipulation, energy and environmental applciations, and so on.

Advances in Plastic Forming of Metals

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ISBN: 9783038972600 9783038972617 Year: Pages: 282 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-261-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-18 11:39:39
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The forming of metals through plastic deformation comprises a family of methods that produce components through the re-shaping of input stock, oftentimes with little waste. Therefore, forming is one of the most efficient and economical manufacturing process families available. A myriad of forming processes exist in this family. In conjunction with their countless existing successful applications and their relatively low energy requirements, these processes are an indispensable part of our future. However, despite the vast accumulated know-how, research challenges remain, be they related to the forming of new materials (e.g., for light-weight transportation applications), pushing the boundaries of what is doable, reducing the intermediate steps and/or scrap, or further enhancing the environmental friendliness. The purpose of this book is to collect expert views and contributions on the current state-of-the-art of plastic forming, thus highlighting contemporary challenges and offering ideas and solutions.

Perspectives on European Earthquake Engineering and Seismology: Volume 1

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Book Series: Geotechnical, Geological and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 34 ISSN: 15736059 ISBN: 9783319071176 9783319071183 Year: Volume: 34 Pages: 650 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-07118-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2014-10-06 15:59:36
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This book collects 5 keynote and 15 topic lectures presented at the 2nd European Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (2ECEES), held in Istanbul, Turkey, from August 24 to 29, 2014. The conference was organized by the Turkish Earthquake Foundation - Earthquake Engineering Committee and Prime Ministry, Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency under the auspices of the European Association for Earthquake Engineering (EAEE) and European Seismological Commission (ESC). The book’s twenty state-of-the-art papers were written by the most prominent researchers in Europe and address a comprehensive collection of topics on earthquake engineering, as well as interdisciplinary subjects such as engineering seismology and seismic risk assessment and management. Further topics include engineering seismology, geotechnical earthquake engineering, seismic performance of buildings, earthquake-resistant engineering structures, new techniques and technologies and managing risk in seismic regions. The book also presents the Third Ambraseys Distinguished Award Lecture given by Prof. Robin Spence in honor of Prof. Nicholas N. Ambraseys. The aim of this work is to present the state-of-the art and latest practices in the fields of earthquake engineering and seismology, with Europe’s most respected researchers addressing recent and ongoing developments while also proposing innovative avenues for future research and development. Given its cutting-edge content and broad spectrum of topics, the book offers a unique reference guide for researchers in these fields.

Advances in Systems Immunology and Cancer

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193134 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-313-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Genetics --- Biology --- Biotechnology --- General and Civil Engineering --- Psychiatry --- Medicine (General) --- Physiology --- Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Aims and Scope: The Research Topic is designed to feature the latest innovative and leading-edge research, reviews and opinions on the study of complex and dynamic processes related to the mammalian immune system and cancer. All papers were meticulously selected to present our readers the multidisciplinary approach to tackle the existing challenges faced in these important fields. From high throughput experimental methodologies to computational and theoretical approaches, the articles are intended to introduce physicists, chemists, computer scientists, biologists and immunologists the idea of systems biology approach to the understanding of mammalian immune system and cancer processes. Attention was given to works that developed more effective approaches to the treatment of proinflammatory disease and cancer. The strong interdisciplinary focus will discuss biological systems at the level from a few molecules to the entire organism. Specific focus domain includes: Innate and adaptive immunity, cancer and cancer stem cell, genomic, proteomic and metabolic analysis, imaging, biophysics of immune and cancer response, computational modeling, non-linear analysis, statistical analysis, translational and disease models Types of articles: Viewpoint, commentaries, research letters, research articles, review and methodologies

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