Expand Subject Tree

Subjects Biology and Life Sciences Biology Microbiology

Browse results: Found 238

Listing 11 - 20 of 238 << page
of 24
>>
Agrobacterium biology and its application to transgenic plant production

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195749 Year: Pages: 165 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-574-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The broad host range pathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been widely studied as a model system to understand horizontal gene flow, secretion of effector proteins into host cells, and plant-pathogen interactions. Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation also is the major method for generating transgenic plants for research and biotechnology purposes. Agrobacterium species have the natural ability to conduct interkingdom genetic transfer from bacteria to eukaryotes, including most plant species, yeast, fungi, and even animal cells. In nature, A. tumefaciens causes crown gall disease resulting from expression in plants of auxin and cytokinin biosynthesis genes encoded by the transferred (T-) DNA. Gene transfer from A. tumefaciens to host cells requires virulence (vir) genes that reside on the resident tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid. In addition to T-DNA, several Virulence (Vir) effector proteins are also translocated to host cells through a bacterial type IV secretion system. These proteins aid in T-DNA trafficking through the host cell cytoplasm, nuclear targeting, and T-DNA integration. Genes within native T-DNAs can be replaced by any gene of interest, making Agrobacterium species important tools for plant research and genetic engineering. In this research topic, we provided updated information on several important areas of Agrobacterium biology and its use for biotechnology purposes.

Allergen

Authors:
ISBN: 9789535135678 9789535135685 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.5772/65229 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Allergy is a main problem of public health in the world. Many people in all countries are suffering from this problem. Some diseases (i.e. allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, food allergy, urticaria, eczema, etc.) have allergic reaction pathophysiology, and with control of allergic mechanisms, these diseases can be controlled and cured. The current book entitled Allergen has focused on allergy, mechanism, diagnosis, treatment, and other related problems. Chapters of the book have good data on allergy-based medical sciences and would be a benefit for all researchers in immunology, allergy, and asthma fields. Current discussions would be useful for prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of atopic patients. We hope these chapters could be a new approach in immunotherapy of allergic diseases and help in the progress of healthy system.

Anaerobic Digestion

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456796 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-679-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- General and Civil Engineering --- Biotechnology --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a naturally-occurring biological process in soils, sediments, ruminants, and several other anoxic environments, that cycles carbon and other nutrients, and converts organic matter into a methane-rich gas. As a biotechnology, AD is now well-established for the treatment of the organic fraction of various waste materials, including wastewaters, but is also increasingly applied for an expanding range of organic feedstocks suitable for biological conversion to biogas. AD applications are classified in various ways, including on the basis of bioreactor design; and operating parameters, such as retention time, temperature, pH, total solids (TS) and volatile solids (VS) contents, and biodegradability of substrates. AD is an attractive bioenergy and waste / wastewater treatment technology. The advantages of AD for waste treatment include: production of a useable fuel (biogas/methane); possibility of high organic loading; reduced carbon footprint; and suitability for integration into a wide variety of process configurations and scales. Specifically, two important, and developing, applications exemplify the potential of AD technologies: (1) the integration of AD as the basis of the core technologies underpinning municipal wastewater, and sewage, treatment, to displace less sustainable, and more energy-intensive, aerobic biological treatment systems in urban water infrastructures; and (2) technical innovations for higher-rate conversions of high-solids wastestreams, and feedstocks, for the production of energy carriers (i.e. methane-biogas, but possibly also biohydrogen) and other industrially-relevant intermediates, such as organic acids. Internationally, the research effort to maximize AD biogas yield has increased ten-fold over the past decade. Depending on the feedstocks, bioreactor design and process parameters, fundamental and applied knowledge are still required to improve conversion rates and biogas yields. This Research Topic cover aspects related to AD processes, such as the effect of feedstock composition, as well as the effect of feedstock pre-treatment, bioreactor design and operating modes, on process efficiency; microbial community dynamics and systems biology; influence of macro- and micro-nutrient concentrations and availability; process control; upgrading and calibration of anaerobic digestion models (e.g. ADM1) considering the biochemical routes as well as the hydrodynamics in such ecosystems; and novel approaches to process monitoring, such as the development, and application, of novel, and rapid diagnostic assays, including those based on molecular microbiology. Detailed full-scale application studies were also particularly welcomed.

Animal model studies on viral infections

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194568 Year: Pages: 173 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-456-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Understanding viral replication and pathogenicity properties in infected individuals is a major mission of animal virology. Animal models are essential to analyze the in vivo viral characteristics and to develop countermeasures against viruses. To fight against a wide variety of viruses, basic studies with specific and/ or common approaches are required. This Research Topic collects articles that describe studies on numerous virus species at various stages toward animal experiments: (i) description/evaluation/ new challenges of animal model studies; (ii) experimental material/methods for animal model studies; (iii) observations for upcoming animal model studies. Numbers of DNA and RNA viruses such as HHV-6, HPV, Ebola virus, HCV, dengue virus, HTLV-1, HIV-1, SIV, and measles virus are covered by this special issue consisting of original research, methods, review, mini-review, and opinion articles. All readers would understand, we believe and hope, that animal model studies are critical for current virology as always.

Anthropogenic Impacts on the Microbial Ecology and Function of Aquatic Environments

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199396 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-939-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Aquatic ecosystems are currently experiencing unprecedented levels of impact from human activities including over-exploitation of resources, habitat destruction, pollution and the influence of climate change. The impacts of these activities on the microbial ecology of aquatic environments are only now beginning to be defined. One of the many implications of environmental degradation and climate change is the geographical expansion of disease- causing microbes such as those from the Vibrio genus. Elevating sea surface temperatures correlate with increasing Vibrio numbers and disease in marine animals (e.g. corals) and humans. Contamination of aquatic environments with heavy metals and other pollutants affects microbial ecology with downstream effects on biogeochemical cycles and nutrient turnover. Also of importance is the pollution of aquatic environments with antibiotics, resistance genes and the mobile genetic elements that house resistance genes from human and animal waste. Such contaminated environments act as a source of resistance genes long after an antibiotic has ceased being used in the community. Environments contaminated with mobile genetic elements that are adapted to human commensals and pathogens function to capture new resistance genes for potential reintroduction back into clinical environments. This research topic encompasses these diverse topics and describes the affect(s) of human activity on the microbial ecology and function in aquatic environments and, describes methods of restoration and for modelling disturbances.

Antibacterial Agents

Authors:
ISBN: 9789535131991 9789535132004 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.5772/65630 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Animal Sciences --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

New drugs are frequently entering into the market along with the existing drugs. The antibacterial agents can be discussed in five major classes, i.e. classification based on the type of action, source, spectrum of activity, chemical structure and function. Resistance of bacteria to antibiotics is an urgent problem of the humanity, which leads us to the lack of therapy for serious bacterial infections. Development of new antibiotics has almost ceased in the last decades - even when a new antibiotic is launched, very soon the resistance of bacteria appears. Industrial textiles exposed as awnings, screens, tents; upholstery used in large public areas such as hospitals, hotels and stations; fabrics for transports; protective clothing and personal protective equipment; bed sheets and blankets; textiles left wet between processing steps; intimate apparel, underwear, socks and sportswear, disinfection of air and water for white rooms, hospitals and operating theatres, food and pharma industries, water depuration, drinkable water supplying and air conditioning systems. Many clinicians recommend alternative approaches to using antimicrobial substances. Moreover, the majority of bioagents demonstrate on antibiotics for treatment of a wide range of diseases in human sectors. However, the misuse and mishandling of drugs lead to microbial, particularly bacterial, resistance as well as result in the difficulty of treating microbial diseases. Hence, the proposed book will give more precise information on novel antibacterial compound(s).

Antibiotic Resistance in Aquatic Systems

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451319 Year: Pages: 107 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-131-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Rivers, lakes and the ocean receive antibiotic resistance genes from human environments. The aquatic environments are a huge reservoir and exchange stage of antibiotic resistance genes.

Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria - A Continuous Challenge in the New Millennium

Authors:
ISBN: 9789535104728 Year: Pages: 588 DOI: 10.5772/1058 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains remain a major global threat, despite the prevention, diagnosis and antibiotherapy, which have improved considerably. In this thematic issue, the scientists present their results of accomplished studies, in order to provide an updated overview of scientific information and also, to exchange views on new strategies for interventions in antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains cases and outbreaks. As a consequence, the recently developed techniques in this field will contribute to a considerable progress in medical research.

Antifungal Drug Discovery: New Theories and New Therapies

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199501 Year: Pages: 136 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-950-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Fungal infections such as candidoses can range from superficial mucous membrane infection to life-threatening systemic mycoses. Candida infections are a significant clinical problem globally due to rapid rise in compromised host populations including HIV/AIDS, organ transplant recipients and patients on chemotherapy. In addition, sharp increase in aging populations which are susceptible to fungal infections is expected in next few decades. Antifungal drugs are relatively difficult to develop compared to the antibacterial drugs owing to the eukaryotic nature of the cells. Therefore, only a handful of antifungal agents are currently available to treat the myriad of fungal infections. Moreover, rising antifungal resistance and host-related adverse reactions have limited the antifungal arsenal against fungal pathogens. In this research topic, we tried to update the theoretical aspects pertaining to the antifungal drug discovery i.e. proposed novel mechanisms, new drug targets and pathways. In addition, invited authors explored the new antifungal drugs derived from natural and synthetic sources which are currently under development. Contributors were encouraged to bring new insight into the antifungal drug discovery. We hope the reader may arrive at a general consensus on the possible strategies to combat ever increasing ubiquitous fungal infection in this new century.

Antimicrobial compounds from natural sources

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192595 Year: Pages: 149 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-259-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The nature is a generous source of a number of compounds with potential application for the treatment of several diseases including the infectious diseases, which is of utmost concern for the modern medicine due to the observed striding antimicrobial resistance. A number of sources of natural compounds with valuable and clinical antimicrobial activity can be listed, comprising medicinal plants, marine and terrestrial organisms, which includes fungi and bacteria. Nevertheless, there is still a vast fauna and flora that, once systematically explored, could provide additional antimicrobial leads and drugs. Investigators were invited to contribute with original research and/or review articles on this area, specifically with studies exploiting the mechanism of action and the structure-activity aspects of natural compounds with antimicrobial activity that provides insights on potential ways to overcome the antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, thanks to the contribution of active researchers in the field, several scientific studies mainly focused on natural products with antimicrobial activity are presented in this Research Topic Ebook.

Listing 11 - 20 of 238 << page
of 24
>>